Role of Inflammatory Markers in Severity, ICU Admission, and Mortality in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 79,934 Patients

Main Article Content

Hiwa O. Abdullah
Sadraldin A. Braim
Maria A. Rasool
Dashne M. Abdalla
Dyari Q. Hamad
Daban K. Ahmad
Ayman M. Mustafa
Fakher Abdullah
Yousif M. Mahmood
Dilan S. Hiwa
Sasan M. Ahmed
Karokh K. Mohammed
Berun A. Abdalla
Shvan H. Mohammed
Fahmi H. kakamad

Keywords

SARS CoV-2, Coronavirus 2019, 2019-nCoV , Biomarkers, Acute phase reactants

Abstract

Introduction


Despite extensive investigations into the roles of inflammatory biomarkers in the prognosis of COVID-19 through systematic reviews and meta-analyses, they are limited by small sample sizes and focus on a specific marker. This meta-analysis investigated the role of 11 inflammatory biomarkers in severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality among COVID-19 patients.


Methods


Studies up to October 25, 2023, were identified through a search of Google Scholar, limited to human studies published in English. Inclusion criteria required confirmed COVID-19 cases diagnosed via reliable laboratory methods, original articles from eligible journals, proper grouping of severity status, ICU admission, or mortality outcomes, and presentation of continuous data in mean and standard deviation, median with range, or interquartile range.


Results


A total of 241 studies, comprising 79,934 cases of COVID-19, were included in this study. Albumin levels significantly declined in severe, ICU, and dead cases compared to mild, moderate, non-ICU, and survived cases (p<0.001). C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, fibrinogen, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), procalcitonin, and white blood cell (WBC) were all significantly (p<0.001) increased and correlated with the severity of COVID-19. CRP, D-dimer, ferritin, fibrinogen, IL-6, LDH, NLR, procalcitonin, and WBC were all significantly (p<0.05) elevated and correlated with the risk of ICU admission (except fibrinogen) and mortality in COVID-19 in both fixed and random effects.


Conclusion


Inflammatory biomarkers like albumin, CRP, D-dimer, ferritin, IL-6, LDH, NLR, procalcitonin, and WBC all significantly impact severity status, ICU admission, and mortality in COVID-19.

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